ADOdb Library for PHP

V3.40 7 April 2003 (c) 2000-2003 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com.my)

This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. Where there is any discrepancy, the BSD-Style license will take precedence. This means you can use it in proprietary and commercial products.

Introduction
Unique Features
How People are using ADOdb
Feature Requests and Bug Reports
Installation
Initializing Code
ADONewConnection NewADOConnection
Supported Databases
Tutorial
Example 1: Select
Example 2: Advanced Select
Example 3: Insert
Example 4: Debugging  rs2html example
Example 5: MySQL and Menus
Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once
Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL
Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous
Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format
Example 10: Custom filters
Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error
Data Source Names
Caching
Pivot Tables

REFERENCE

Variables: $ADODB_COUNTRECS $ADODB_CACHE_DIR $ADODB_FETCH_MODE 
Constants:
ADODB_ASSOC_CASE
ADOConnection
Connections: Connect PConnect NConnect
Executing SQL: Execute CacheExecute SelectLimit CacheSelectLimit Prepare PrepareSP Parameter
              GetOne CacheGetOne GetRow CacheGetRow GetAll CacheGetAll GetCol CacheGetCol Replace
               ExecuteCursor (oci8 only)
Generates SQL: GetUpdateSQL GetInsertSQL
Blobs: UpdateBlob UpdateClob UpdateBlobFile BlobEncode BlobDecode
Paging/Scrolling: PageExecute CachePageExecute
Cleanup: CacheFlush Close
Transactions: BeginTrans CommitTrans RollbackTrans StartTrans CompleteTrans
Fetching Data:
SetFetchMode
Strings: concat qstr quote
Dates: DBDate DBTimeStamp UnixDate UnixTimeStamp OffsetDate SQLDate
Rows Management: Affected_Rows Insert_ID GenID CreateSequence DropSequence
Error Handling: ErrorMsg ErrorNo MetaError MetaErrorMsg
Data Dictionary (metadata): MetaDatabases MetaTables MetaColumns MetaColumnNames MetaPrimaryKeys ServerInfo
Statistics and Query-Rewriting: fnExecute and fnCacheExecute
Deprecated: Bind BlankRecordSet

ADORecordSet

Returns one row:FetchRow FetchInto FetchObject FetchNextObject FetchObj FetchNextObj
Returns all rows:GetArray GetRows GetAssoc
Scrolling:Move MoveNext MoveFirst MoveLast AbsolutePosition CurrentRow AtFirstPage AtLastPage AbsolutePage

Menu generation:GetMenu GetMenu2
Dates:UserDate UserTimeStamp UnixDate UnixTimeStamp
Recordset Info:RecordCount PO_RecordSet NextRecordSet
Field Info:FieldCount FetchField MetaType
Cleanup: Close

Deprecated: GetRowAssoc Fields

rs2html  example
Differences between ADOdb and ADO
Database Driver Guide
Change Log

Introduction

PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for a database class library to hide the differences between the different database API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).

We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix, PostgreSQL, FrontBase, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO and ODBC. We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and DB2 via ODBC. We hope more people will contribute drivers to support other databases.

PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.

Also read http://php.weblogs.com/portable_sql (also available as tips_portable_sql.htm in the release) for tips on writing portable SQL.

Unique Features of ADOdb

How People are using ADOdb

Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list, visit http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications):

Feature Requests and Bug Reports

Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to jlim#natsoft.com.my or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4.

Installation Guide

Make sure you are running PHP4.01pl2 or later (it uses require_once and include_once). Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.

To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize the connection settings correctly. You can debug using:

<?php

	include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');

	$db = ADONewConnection($database);

	$db->debug = true;

	$db->Connect($server, $user, $password, $database);

	$rs = $db->Execute('select * from some_small_table');

   print "<pre>";

	print_r($rs->GetRows());

   print "</pre>";

?>

Code Initialization

When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php, which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.

For example, to connect to a mysql database:


include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');

$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');

Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object using the ADONewConnection($driver) function. NewADOConnection($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.

At this point, you are not connected to the database. You will use $conn->Connect() or $conn->PConnect() to perform the actual connection.

See the examples below in the Tutorial.

Databases Supported

Name Tested Database RecordCount() usable Prerequisites Operating Systems
access B Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN. Y/N ODBC Windows only
ado B

Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This is the base class for all ado drivers.

You can set $db->codePage before connecting.

? depends on database ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
ado_access B Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. Y/N ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
ado_mssql B Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. Y/N ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
db2 C DB2. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver. Y/N DB2 CLI/ODBC interface

Unix and Windows. Unix install hints.

vfp A Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN. Y/N ODBC Windows only
fbsql C FrontBase. Y ?

Unix and Windows

ibase B Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need to use this
$db->PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.

You can set $db->dialect, $db->buffers and $db->charSet before connecting.
Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
firebird C Firebird version of interbase. Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
borland_ibase C Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that the forks differ. Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
informix72 C Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support SELECT FIRST. Y/N Informix client Unix and Windows
informix C Generic informix driver. Y/N Informix client Unix and Windows
mssql A

Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return the seconds for datetime!

Y/N Mssql client

Unix and Windows.
Unix install howto and another one.

mssqlpo A

Portable mssql driver. Identical to above mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use ||.

Y/N Mssql client

Unix and Windows.
Unix install howto
.

mysql A MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db->clientFlags before connecting. Y/N MySQL client Unix and Windows
mysqlt or maxsql A

MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running MySQL using:
mysqld --ansi or mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT

Y/N MySQL client Unix and Windows
oci8 A Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than oracle driver (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before Connect/PConnect.

There are 2 ways of connecting - with server IP and service name:
PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service')
or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES:
PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname).

Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly (see ExecuteCursor).

Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
oci805 C Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers. Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
oci8po A Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention of lowercase names.

Use this driver if porting from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better performance.

Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
odbc A Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect, use
PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived drivers.
? depends on database ODBC Unix and Windows. Unix hints.
odbc_mssql C Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL Y/N ODBC Unix and Windows.
odbc_oracle C Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle Y/N ODBC Unix and Windows.
oracle C Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8 driver if possible for better performance. Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
postgres A Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7 driver. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
postgres64 A For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT internally. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
postgres7 A PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
sqlanywhere C Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver. Y/N SQL Anywhere ODBC client

?

sybase C Sybase. Y/N Sybase client

Unix and Windows.

The "Tested" column indicates how extensively the code has been tested and used.
A = well tested and used by many people
B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented
C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of the latest features of ADOdb.

The column "RecordCount() usable" indicates whether RecordCount() return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed. If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets, it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.


Tutorial

Example 1: Select Statement

Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each row.

In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection to the database. The connection is initiated with PConnect, which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we call the ADOConnection.Execute() function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that holds the current row in the array fields[]. We use MoveNext() to move from row to row.

NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is SelectLimit, which allows us to limit the number of rows shown.


<?

include('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb

$conn = &ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection

$conn->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN

$recordSet = &$conn->Execute('select * from products');

if (!$recordSet) 

	print $conn->ErrorMsg();

else

while (!$recordSet->EOF) {

	print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.$recordSet->fields[1].'<BR>';

	$recordSet->MoveNext();

}



$recordSet->Close(); # optional

$conn->Close(); # optional



?>

The $recordSet returned stores the current row in the $recordSet->fields array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the MoveNext() function to move to the next row. The EOF property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(), we return false instead of a recordset.

The $recordSet->fields[] array is generated by the PHP database extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit().


	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);

	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);

	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')

	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use $recordSet->RecordCount(). Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.

Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects

Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.


<?

include('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb

$conn = &ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection

$conn->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn

$recordSet = &$conn->Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');

if (!$recordSet) 

	print $conn->ErrorMsg();

else

while (!$recordSet->EOF) {

	$fld = $recordSet->FetchField(1);

	$type = $recordSet->MetaType($fld->type);



	if ( $type == 'D' || $type == 'T') 

		print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.

			$recordSet->UserDate($recordSet->fields[1],'m/d/Y').'<BR>';

	else 

		print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.$recordSet->fields[1].'<BR>';



	$recordSet->MoveNext();

}

$recordSet->Close(); # optional

$conn->Close(); # optional



?>

In this example, we check the field type of the second column using FetchField(). This returns an object with at least 3 fields.

We then use MetaType() to translate the native type to a generic type. Currently the following generic types are defined:

If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user defined date format with UserDate(), which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another use for MetaType() is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.

Example 3: Inserting

Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote in the word John's.


<?

include('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb

$conn = &ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection



$conn->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn

$shipto = $conn->qstr("John's Old Shoppe");



$sql = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";

$sql .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$conn->DBDate(time()).",$shipto)";



if ($conn->Execute($sql) === false) {

	print 'error inserting: '.$conn->ErrorMsg().'<BR>';

}

?>

In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated for Access with DBDate(), and the right escape character is used for quoting the John's Old Shoppe, which is John''s Old Shoppe and not PHP's default John's Old Shoppe with qstr().

Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by Execute() if an error occured. The error message for the last error that occurred is displayed in ErrorMsg(). Note: php_track_errors might have to be enabled for error messages to be saved.

Example 4: Debugging

<?

include('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb

$conn = &ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection

$conn->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn

$shipto = $conn->qstr("John's Old Shoppe");

$sql = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";

$sql .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$conn->FormatDate(time()).",$shipto)";

$conn->debug = true;

if ($conn->Execute($sql) === false) print 'error inserting';

?>

In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting debug = true. This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error messages. There is no need to call ErrorMsg() in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the rs2html() example.

Also see the section on Custom Error Handlers.

Example 5: MySQL and Menus

Connect to MySQL database agora, and generate a <select> menu from an SQL statement where the <option> captions are in the 1st column, and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.

<?

include('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb

$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection

$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db

$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql);

print $rs->GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');

?>

Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. See GetMenu(). We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: GetArray(), and as an associative array with the key being the first column: GetAssoc().

Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once

<?

include('adodb.inc.php');	 # load code common to ADOdb

$conn1 = &ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a mysql connection

$conn2 = &ADONewConnection('oracle');  # create a oracle connection



$conn1->PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);

$conn2->PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);



$conn1->Execute('insert ...');

$conn2->Execute('update ...');

?>

Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL

ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...", make a copy of the $rs->fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to update or insert into the table automatically.

We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).

Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com.

<?

#==============================================

# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code

#==============================================

include('adodb.inc.php');

include('tohtml.inc.php');



#==========================

# This code tests an insert



$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; 

# Select an empty record from the database



$conn = &ADONewConnection("mysql");  # create a connection

$conn->debug=1;

$conn->PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset



$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert



# Set the values for the fields in the record

# Note that field names are case-insensitive

$record["firstname"] = "Bob";

$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";

$record["creaTed"] = time();



# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert

# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return

# a fully formatted insert sql statement.

$insertSQL = $conn->GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);



$conn->Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database



#==========================

# This code tests an update



$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; 

# Select a record to update



$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update



$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update



# Set the values for the fields in the record

# Note that field names are case-insensitive

$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";

$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith



# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update

# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return

# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.

# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned

$updateSQL = $conn->GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);



$conn->Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database

$conn->Close();

?>

Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous

The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll from page to page of a recordset.


include_once('../adodb.inc.php');

include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');

session_start();



$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');



$db->Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');



$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";



$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);

$pager->Render($rows_per_page=5);

This will create a basic record pager that looks like this:

|<   <<   >>   >|  
IDFirst NameLast NameDate Created
36  Alan  Turing  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
37  Serena  Williams  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
38  Yat Sun  Sun  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
39  Wai Hun  See  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
40  Steven  Oey  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
Page 8/10

The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows) method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to 10 records per page.

You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most databases):

$sql = 'select id as "ID", firstname as "First Name", 

		  lastname as "Last Name", created as "Date Created" 
from adoxyz';

The above code can be found in the adodb/tests/testpaging.php example included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php. The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting colors.

You can also allow display of html by setting $pager->htmlSpecialChars = false.

Some of the code used here was contributed by Iván Oliva and Cornel G.

Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format

We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and tab-delimited formats:

include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');
include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');
$db = &NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db->Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);

$rs = $db->Execute('select fname as "First Name", surname as "Surname" from table'); print "<pre>";
print rs2csv($rs); # return a string, CSV format

print '<hr>';
$rs->MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst
print rs2tab($rs,false); # return a string, tab-delimited # false == suppress field names in first line

print '<hr>';
$rs->MoveFirst();
rs2tabout($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function) print "</pre>"; $rs->MoveFirst();
$fp = fopen($path, "w"); if ($fp) {
rs2csvfile($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function) fclose($fp);
}

Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to Excel import and export guide-lines.

All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which defaults to true. When set to false field names in the first line are suppressed.

Example 10: Recordset Filters

Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it. For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset.


include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');

include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');



// ucwords() every element in the recordset

function do_ucwords(&$arr,$rs)

{

	foreach($arr as $k => $v) {

		$arr[$k] = ucwords($v);

	}

}



$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$db->PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');



$rs = $db->Execute('select ... from table');

$rs = RSFilter($rs,'do_ucwords');

The RSFilter function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name of the filter function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to the first record. The filter function takes two parameters, the current row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should not use the original recordset object.

Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error

Apart from the old $con->debug = true; way of debugging, ADOdb 1.50 onwards provides another way of handling errors using ADOdb's custom error handlers.

ADOdb provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The first one is in the adodb-errorhandler.inc.php file. This makes use of the standard PHP functions error_reporting to control what error messages types to display, and trigger_error which invokes the default PHP error handler.

Including the above file will cause trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR) to be called when
(a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or
(b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit() has an error.
(c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop.

The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information similar to the error.log data generated below. This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects.

If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be shown. If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be displayed on the screen.


<?php

error_reporting(E_ALL); # show any error messages triggered

include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');

include('adodb.inc.php');

include('tohtml.inc.php');

$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');

$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');

if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);

?>

If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE is the error log message type (see error_log in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.


<?php

error_reporting(0); # do not echo any errors

define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);

define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');

include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');

include('adodb.inc.php');

include('tohtml.inc.php');



$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');

$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz

if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);

?>

The following message will be logged in the error.log file:

(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in

 EXECUTE("select * from productsz")

The second error handler is adodb-errorpear.inc.php. This will create a PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error().

<?php

include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');

include('adodb.inc.php');

include('tohtml.inc.php');

$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');

$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');

if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);

else {

	$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();

	echo '<p>',$e->message,'</p>';

}

?>

You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution:


include('PEAR.php');

PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');

Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique.

Error Messages

Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform error-logging.

Data Source Names

We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string of the form:

$dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename";

You pass the DSN to the static class function DB::Connect. An example:

   include_once('../adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php');

   $username = 'root';

   $password = '';

   $hostname = 'localhost';

   $databasename = 'xphplens';

   $driver = 'mysql';

   $dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename";
   $db = DB::Connect($dsn);
$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz'); $cnt = 0; while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) { print_r($arr); print "<br>"; }

This requires PEAR to be installed and in the default include path in php.ini.

Caching of Recordsets

ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute( ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions, except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.

An example:


include('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb

$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';

$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection

$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db

$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';

$rs = $conn->CacheExecute(15,$sql);

The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) call.

For the sake of security, we recommend you set register_globals=off in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.

In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit() and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection->cacheSecs parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes.


	$conn->Connect(...);

	$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours

	$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');

Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. More info.

Pivot Tables

Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation read this DevShed Cross-Tabulation tutorial. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression.

In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by suppliers versus product categories. We will place the suppliers on each row, and pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table on the right:

Supplier Category
supplier1 category1
supplier2 category1
supplier2 category2
-->
  category1 category2 total
supplier1 1 0 1
supplier2 1 1 2

The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation:


# Query the main "product" table

# Set the rows to CompanyName

# and the columns to the values of Categories

# and define the joins to link to lookup tables 

# "categories" and "suppliers"

#

 include "adodb/pivottable.php";

 $sql = PivotTableSQL(

 	$gDB,                                      # adodb connection

 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',   # tables

	'CompanyName',                             # rows (multiple fields allowed)

	'CategoryName',                            # column to pivot on 

	'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where

);

This will generate the following SQL:

SELECT CompanyName,
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Beverages",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Condiments",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Confections",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Dairy Products",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Grains/Cereals",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Meat/Poultry",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Produce",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Seafood",
SUM(1) as Total
FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID
GROUP BY CompanyName

You can also pivot on numerical columns and generate totals by using ranges. This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 and is not backward compatible. The second example shows this:


 $sql = PivotTableSQL(

 	$gDB,                                       # adodb connection

 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',    # tables

	'CompanyName',                              # rows (multiple fields allowed)

   array(                                       # column ranges

	' 0 '      => 'UnitsInStock <= 0',

	"1 to 5"   => '0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5',

	"6 to 10"  => '5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10',

	"11 to 15" => '10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15',

	"16+"      => '15 < UnitsInStock'

	),

	' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where

	'UnitsInStock',                             # sum this field

	'Sum '                                      # sum label prefix

);

Which generates:

SELECT CompanyName,
SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock <= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 0 ",
SUM(CASE WHEN 0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 1 to 5",
SUM(CASE WHEN 5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 6 to 10",
SUM(CASE WHEN 10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 11 to 15",
SUM(CASE WHEN 15 < UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 16+",
SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock",
SUM(1) as Total,
FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID
GROUP BY CompanyName


Class Reference

Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.

Global Variables

$ADODB_COUNTRECS

If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance. This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.

$ADODB_CACHE_DIR

If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute( ). We recommend setting register_globals=off in php.ini if you use this feature for security reasons.

If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory permissions to something similar to the following:

chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache
chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache

$ADODB_FETCH_MODE

This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets. The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit( )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.

The following constants are defined:

define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);
define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);
define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);
define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3);

An example:


	$ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;

	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	$ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;

	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')

	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was created by Execute().

If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.

SetFetchMode Function

Some programmers prefer to use a more object-oriented solution, where the fetch mode is set by a object function, SetFetchMode. Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal fetchMode property exclusively.


	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);

	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);

	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');

	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')

	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db->fetchMode property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ).

ADODB_ASSOC_CASE

You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:

0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs->fields['orderid']
1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs->fields['ORDERID']
2 = use native-case field names. $rs->fields['OrderID'] -- this is the default since ADOdb 2.90

To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.

define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC
include('adodb.inc.php');


ADOConnection

Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements for issues such as concatenation and date formats.

ADOConnection Fields

databaseType: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. odbc or mssql or mysql.

dataProvider: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. Normally set to native, unless using odbc or ado.

host: Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.

database: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it will hold the ado data provider.

user: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security reasons.

raiseErrorFn: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php for an example.

debug: Set to true to make debug statements to appear.

concat_operator: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate strings in SQL. Used by the Concat function.

fmtDate: The format used by the DBDate function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.

fmtTimeStamp: The format used by the DBTimeStamp function to send timestamps to the database.

true: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for Microsoft SQL.

false: The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' for Microsoft SQL.

replaceQuote: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by qstr.

autoCommit: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is true.

charSet: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase supports this.

dialect: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase supports this.

metaTablesSQL: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. SHOW TABLES in MySQL.

genID: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.

cacheSecs: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute() or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.

sysDate: String that holds the name of the database function to call to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.

sysTimeStamp: String that holds the name of the database function to call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.

leftOuter: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. Otherwise set to false.

rightOuter: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. Otherwise set to false.

ansiOuter: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins are permitted. Eg. select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.

connectSID: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.

autoRollback: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect( ) if this is set to true. Default is false.


ADOConnection Main Functions

ADOConnection( )

Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.

Connect($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])

Non-persistent connect to data source or server $host, using userid $user and password $password. If the server supports multiple databases, connect to database $database.

Returns true/false depending on connection.

ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.

PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the other parameters will be ignored.

For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively, set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed tnsnames.ora.

Examples:

 # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES

 $conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); 

 $conn->Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora

There are many examples of connecting to a database at php.weblogs.com/ADOdb, and in the testdatabases.inc.php file included in the release.

PConnect($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])

Persistent connect to data source or server $host, using userid $user and password $password. If the server supports multiple databases, connect to database $database.

We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since 2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which databases are affected.

Returns true/false depending on connection. See Connect( ) above for more info.

Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:

 $conn = &NewADOConnection('mysql');

 $conn->autoRollback = true; # default is false

 $conn->PConnect(...); # rollback here

Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle, MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently.

Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST before you call PConnect.

NConnect($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])

Always force new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0 or later) and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like Connect().

Execute($sql,$inputarr=false)

Execute SQL statement $sql and return derived class of ADORecordSet if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even if we are executing an insert or update statement.

Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the sql.

The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below is an Oracle example:


 $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=> $val));

 

Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:


  $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));

Binding variables
Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading to higher performance. Currently Oracle and ODBC support variable binding. ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding.

Variable binding in the odbc and oci8po drivers.


$rs = $db->Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));

Variable binding in the oci8 driver.

$rs = $db->Execute('select name from table where val=:key', 

  array('key' => 10));

CacheExecute([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)

Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. If CacheExecute() is called again with the same parameters, same database, same userid, same password, and the cached recordset has not expired, the cached recordset is returned.


  include('adodb.inc.php'); 

  include('tohtml.inc.php');

  $ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';

  $conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); 

  $conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');

  $rs = $conn->CacheExecute(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs

  rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */  

Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:

	$conn->Connect(...);

   	$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours

	$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');

Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. If omitted, we use the value in $connection->cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute() only with SELECT statements.

Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database server is much slower than your Web server or the database is very overloaded then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance.

ExecuteCursor($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)

Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8. Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.


    $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); 

    $db->Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); 

    $rs = $db->ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", 

					'cursorvar',

					array('param1'=>10)); 

    # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object
rs2html($rs);

ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally:


	$stmt = $db->Prepare("BEGIN :RS := SP_FOO(); END;");

	$db->Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'RS', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);

	$rs = $db->Execute($stmt);

SelectLimit($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)

Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET $offset clause.

In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records only. The equivalent is $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3). This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.

And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3,2).

Note that this is the opposite of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also set $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10) to get rows 11 to the last row.

The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. Below is an Oracle example:


 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));

 

The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable of ?:


 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));

Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs.

CacheSelectLimit([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)

Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory.

Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time in $connection->cacheSecs.

	$conn->Connect(...);

   $conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours

	$rs = $conn->CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);

CacheFlush($sql=false,$inputarr=false)

Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.

If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted.

If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following PHP code (works only under Unix):
  system("rm -f `find ".$ADODB_CACHE_DIR." -name adodb_*.cache`");

For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use crontab on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:
#------------------------------------------------------
# This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH
# directory with the string ".cache" in their name that
# are more than 7 days old.
#------------------------------------------------------
AGED=7
find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep "\.cache" | xargs rm -f

MetaError($errno=false)

Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError will return -1 (DB_ERROR).

MetaErrorMsg($errno)

Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.

ErrorMsg()

Returns the last status or error message. This can return a string even if no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.

Note: If debug is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed when the Execute function is called.

ErrorNo()

Returns the last error number. Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.

SetFetchMode($mode)

Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores it in $db->fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. For more info, see $ADODB_FETCH_MODE.

Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.

CreateSequence($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)

Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will be $startID. Added in 2.60.

DropSequenceD($seqName = 'adodbseq')

Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60.

GenID($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)

Generate a sequence number (an integer except for mssql). Works for interbase, mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself.

If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if you need something larger - numeric(16).

For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql), we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.

Note that the mssql driver's GenID() used to generate 16 byte GUID's. We now return integers since 1.90.

UpdateBlob($table,$column,$val,$where)

Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.

Usage:


	# for oracle

	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');

	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');

	

	# non oracle databases

	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');

	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');

Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on the state of development.

Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs to be decoded using $connection->DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0.

For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field. You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ). Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.

If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing in bytea fields.

UpdateClob($table,$column,$val,$where)

Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects.

Usage:


	# for oracle

	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');

	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');

	

	# non oracle databases

	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');

	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');

UpdateBlobFile($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')

Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob resides.

For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface does not support bytea fields.

Returns true if successful, false otherwise.

BlobEncode($blob)

Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently, BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.

Returns the encoded blob value.

Note that there is a connection property called blobEncodeType which has 3 legal values:

false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.
'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value (no need to quote).
'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value (requires quoting).

This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.

BlobDecode($blob)

Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement. If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database, PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields, we auto-decode for you).

$rs = $db->Execute("select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key");

$blob = $db->BlobDecode( reset($rs->fields) );

Replace($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)

Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked, 2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some Interbase API limitations.

The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $keyCols which is an associative array where the keys are the field names, and keyCols is the name of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If $autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric; auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if you use SQL functions or operators.

Examples:


# single field primary key

$ret = $db->Replace('atable', 

	array('id'=>1000,'firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid'),

	'id',

	'firstname',$autoquote = true);	

# generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000

# or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')



# compound key

$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 

	array('firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid', 'age' => 33, 'birthday' => 'null'),

	array('lastname','firstname'),

	'firstname',$autoquote = true);



# no auto-quoting

$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 

	array('firstname'=>"'Harun'",'lastname'=>"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' => 'null'),

	array('lastname','firstname'),

	'firstname');	



GetUpdateSQL(&$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false)

Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to $rs->fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.

GetInsertSQL(&$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false)

Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.

PageExecute($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)

Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See Example 8.

CachePageExecute($secs2cache, $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)

Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See Example 8. Caching version of PageExecute.

Close( )

Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.

StartTrans( )

Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.

To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans(). The following is the wrong way to use transactions:


$DB->BeginTrans();

$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");

$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

$DB->CommitTrans();

because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way:


$DB->BeginTrans();

$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");

if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

if ($ok) $DB->CommitTrans();

else $DB->RollbackTrans();

Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0):


$DB->BeginTrans();

$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");

if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

$DB->CommitTrans($ok);

Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed. Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.


$DB->StartTrans();

CallBlackBox();

$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");

$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

$DB->CompleteTrans($ok);

Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.

CompleteTrans($autoComplete=true)

Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback. Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.

BeginTrans( )

Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. Interbase, Oracle and MSSQL support transactions. Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed.

Note that StartTrans() and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the StartTrans() documentation.

You can also use the ADOdb error handler to die and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly do a $DB->RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety.

Detecting Transactions

Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check that $connection->transCnt > 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called, and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.

CommitTrans($ok=true)

End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed.

If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in BeginTrans().

RollbackTrans( )

End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked.

GetOne($sql,$inputarr=false)

Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false is returned.

GetRow($sql,$inputarr=false)

Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.

GetAll($sql)

Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.

GetCol($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)

Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a 1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.

CacheGetOne([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)

Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. If omitted, we use the value in $connection->cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour).

Prepare($sql )

Prepares an SQL query for repeated execution. Only supported internally by interbase, oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation.

Returns an array containing the original sql statement in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( ).

Example:

$stmt = $DB->Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');

for ($i=0; $i < $max; $i++)
$DB->Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));

Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing. This behaviour has been observed with ODBC.

PrepareSP($sql)

In the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures requires a special function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this function. PrepareSP( ) is available in all other drivers, and is emulated by calling Prepare( ). For examples of usage, see Parameter( ) below.

Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( ) above.

Parameter($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )

Adds a bind parameter in a fashion that is compatible with Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle oci8. The parameters are:

$stmt Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().
$var PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!
$name Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.
[$isOutput] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.
[$maxLen] Maximum length of the parameter variable.
[$type] Consult mssql_bind and ocibindbyname docs at php.net for more info on legal values for type.

In mssql, $opt can hold the following elements: array('type' => integer, maxLen =>integer). Example:

# @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group
$stmt = $db->PrepareSP('SP_RUNSOMETHING');
# note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!
$db->Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid');
$db->Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64);
# return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name
$db->Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true);
$db->Execute($stmt);

An oci8 example:

# For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical

$stmt = $db->PrepareSP(

	"declare RETVAL integer; 
begin
:RETVAL :=
SP_RUNSOMETHING(:myid,:group);
end;"
);
$db->Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid');
$db->Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64); $db->Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true);
$db->Execute($stmt);

Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is the syntax of $sql.

If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined based on the type of the PHP variable passed (string => SQLCHAR, boolean =>SQLINT1, integer =>SQLINT4 or float/double=>SQLFLT8). In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To pass in a null, use $db->Parameter($stmt, $null=null, 'param').

Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:

$id = 0; $i = 0;

$stmt = $db->PrepareSP( "update table set val=:i where id=:id");

$db->Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');

$db->Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');

for ($cnt=0; $cnt < 1000; $cnt++) {

	$id = $cnt; 
$i = $cnt * $cnt; # works with oci8! $db->Execute($stmt);
}

Bind($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)

This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 driver. Avoid using unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.

Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements.

The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your own bind-name using $name.

The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.

$stmt = $DB->Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)");

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p1);

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p2);

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p3);

for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) { 

   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;

   $DB->Execute($stmt);

}

You can also use named variables:


$stmt = $DB->Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)");

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p1, "name0");

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p2, "name1");

$DB->Bind($stmt, $p3, "name2");

for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) { 

   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;

   $DB->Execute($stmt);

}

fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties

These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting of your sql. For example, to count all cached queries and non-cached queries, you can do this:

# $db is the connection object

function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)

{
global $EXECS; $EXECS++; } # $db is the connection object function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray) {
global $CACHED; $CACHED++; }
$db = NewADOConnection('mysql'); $db->Connect(...); $db->fnExecute = 'CountExecs'; $db->fnCacheExecute = 'CountCachedExecs'; : :
# After many sql statements:` printf("<p>Total queries=%d; total cached=%d</p>",$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);

The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement, then $sql is an array (see Prepare). The fnCacheExecute function is only called if the recordset returned was cached. The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.


ADOConnection Utility Functions

BlankRecordSet([$queryid])

No longer available - removed since 1.99.

Concat($s1,$s2,....)

Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.

Returns the concatenated string.

DBDate($date)

Format the $date in the format the database accepts; this can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.

Returns the date as a quoted string.

DBTimeStamp($ts)

Format the timestamp $ts in the format the database accepts; this can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.

Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.

qstr($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled=false])

Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $magic_quotes_enabled parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by qstr and once by the magic_quotes_gpc.

Eg. $s = $db->qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());

Returns the quoted string.

Quote($s)

Quotes the string, automatically checking get_magic_quotes_gpc() first. If get_magic_quotes_gpc() is set, then we do not quote the string.

Affected_Rows( )

Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns false if function not supported.

Not supported by interbase/firebird currently.

Insert_ID( )

Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported.

Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MSSQL currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which can change on a database reload.

MetaDatabases()

Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.

MetaTables()

Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible.

MetaColumns($table)

Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of $table. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify the correct data type (so we default to varchar)..

MetaColumnNames($table)

Returns an array of column names for $table.

MetaPrimaryKeys($table)

Returns an array containing column names that are the primary keys of $table. Only supported by mysql, postgres, oci8 currently.

ServerInfo($table)

Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also a string).


ADORecordSet

When an SQL statement successfully is executed by ADOConnection->Execute($sql),an ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to show to the user.

ADORecordSet Fields

fields: Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function Fields, which behaves like an associative array.

dataProvider: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. Normally set to native, unless using odbc or ado.

blobSize: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the MetaType function.

sql: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.

canSeek: Set to true if Move( ) function works.

EOF: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.

ADORecordSet Functions

ADORecordSet( )

Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.

GetAssoc([$force_array])

Generates an associative array from the recordset if the number of columns is greater than 2. The array is generated from the current cursor position till EOF. The first column of the recordset becomes the key to the rest of the array. If the columns is equal to two, then the key directly maps to the value unless $force_array is set to true, when an array is created for each key. Inspired by PEAR's getAssoc.

Example:

We have the following data in a recordset:

row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible
row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible
row3: Rose, Flower, Edible

GetAssoc will generate the following associative array:

Apple => [Fruit, Edible]
Cactus => [Plant, Inedible]
Rose => [Flower,Edible]

Returns:

The associative array, or false if an error occurs.

GetArray([$number_of_rows])

Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till EOF.

GetRows([$number_of_rows])

Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO.

GetMenu($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])

Generate a HTML menu (<select><option><option></select>). The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be given the name $name.

If $default_str is defined, then if $default_str == fields[0], that field is selected. If $blank1stItem is true, the first option is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem = "$value:$text".

$Default_str can be array for a multiple select listbox.

To get a listbox, set the $size to a non-zero value (or pass $default_str as an array). If $multiple_select is true then a listbox will be generated with $size items (or if $size==0, then 5 items) visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use $moreAttr to add additional attributes such as javascript or styles.

Menu Example 1: GetMenu('menu1','A',true) will generate a menu: for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see example 5.

Menu Example 2: For the same data, GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false) will generate a menu with both A and B selected:

GetMenu2($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])

This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $default_str is matched to fields[1] (the option values).

Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false) will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return to the Web server.

UserDate($str, [$fmt])

Converts the date string $str to another format.UserDate calls UnixDate to parse $str, and $fmt defaults to Y-m-d if not defined.

UserTimeStamp($str, [$fmt])

Converts the timestamp string $str to another format. The timestamp format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12'. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $str, and $fmt defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined.

UnixDate($str)

Parses the date string $str and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).

This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.

UnixTimeStamp($str)

Parses the timestamp string $str and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y h:i:sA is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).

This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.

OffsetDate($dayFraction, $basedate=false)

Allows you to calculate future and past dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate is not defined, then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the SQL string that performs the calculation when passed to Execute().

For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that is 2.5 days from today, you can use:

# get date one week from now

$fld = $conn->OffsetDate(7); // returns "(trunc(sysdate)+7")
# get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time

$fld = $conn->OffsetDate(2.5, $conn->sysTimeStamp);	// returns "(sysdate+2.5)"



$conn->Execute("UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id");

This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow performing numeric day arithmetic on dates.

SQLDate($dateFormat, $basedate=false)

Use the native SQL functions to format a date or date column $basedate, using a case-insensitive $dateFormat, which supports:

 Y: 4-digit Year

 Q: Quarter (1-4)

 M: Month (01-12)

 D: Day (01-31)

All other characters are treated as strings. You can also use \ to escape characters. Available on selected databases, including mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2.

This is useful in writing portable sql statements that GROUP BY on dates. For example to display total cost of goods sold broken by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate):


 $sqlfn = $db->SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1

 $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";

 

MoveNext( )

Move the internal cursor to the next row. The $this->fields array is automatically updated. Return false if unable to do so (normally because EOF has been reached), otherwise true. If EOF is reached, then the $this->fields array is set to false (this was only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). Note that if false is returned, then the previous array in $this->fields is preserved.

Example:

$rs = $db->Execute($sql);

if ($rs) 

	while (!$rs->EOF) {

 		ProcessArray($rs->fields);	

		$rs->MoveNext();

	} 

Move($to)

Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $to. Rows are zero-based eg. 0 is the first row. The fields array is automatically updated. For databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will simulate forward scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $to position is after the EOF, $to will move to the end of the RecordSet for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this way.

Note: This function uses absolute positioning, unlike Microsoft's ADO.

Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position before the Move( ).

MoveFirst()

Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.

MoveLast()

Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not support this function.

GetRowAssoc($toUpper=true)

The above function is no longer the prefered way of getting associative arrays. Use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE variable instead.

Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access. To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext().

For example:
Array ( [ID] => 1 [FIRSTNAME] => Caroline [LASTNAME] => Miranda [CREATED] => 2001-07-05 )

Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.

AbsolutePage($page=-1)

Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.

AtFirstPage($status='')

Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.

AtLastPage($status='')

Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.

Fields($colname)

This function is deprecated. Use $ADODB_FETCH_MODE instead.

Some database extensions (eg. MySQL) return arrays that are both associative and indexed if you use the native extensions. GetRowAssoc() does not return arrays that combine associative and indexed elements. Returns the value of the associated column $colname for the current row. The column name is case-insensitive.

FetchRow()

Returns array containing current row, or false if EOF. FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current row.

Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().

Usage:

$rs = $db->Execute($sql);

if ($rs)

	while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) {

	     # process $arr	

	}

FetchInto(&$array)

Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error object if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned when EOF. FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current row.

FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.

FetchField($column_number)

Returns an object containing the name, type and max_length of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See example 2.

FieldCount( )

Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.

RecordCount( )

Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the number of records returned cannot be determined from the database driver API, we will buffer all rows and return a count of the rows after all the records have been retrieved. This buffering can be disabled (for performance reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled, RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. See the supported databases list above for more details.

RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.

PO_RecordCount($table, $where)

Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the database does not support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the table $table, with the given $where condition to return an estimate of the recordset size.

$numrows = $rs->PO_RecordCount("articles_table", "group=$group");

NextRecordSet()

For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned in one query, this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently only supported by mssql driver.


$rs = $db->Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');

$arr1 = $rs->GetArray();

$rs->NextRecordSet();

$arr2 = $rs->GetArray();

FetchObject($toupper=true)

Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.

FetchNextObject($toupper=true)

Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically. Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case.


$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');

if ($rs) {

	while ($o = $rs->FetchNextObject()) {

		print "$o->FIRSTNAME, $o->LASTNAME<BR>";

	}

}

There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance is important, you should access rows with the fields[] array. FetchObj()

Returns the current record as an object. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike FetchObject.

FetchNextObj()

Returns the current record as an object and moves to the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike FetctNextObject.

CurrentRow( )

Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.

AbsolutePosition( )

Synonym for CurrentRow for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.

MetaType($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])

Determine what generic meta type a database field type is given its native type $nativeDBType as a string and the length of the field $field_max_length. Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned by the database driver can be passed in $fieldobj. This is useful for databases such as mysql which has additional properties in the field object such as primary_key.

Uses the field blobSize and compares it with $field_max_length to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.

For example, $db->MetaType('char') will return 'C'.

Returns:

Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj as the first parameter, instead of $nativeDBType.

Close( )

Close the recordset.


function rs2html($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes], [$col_titles])

This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar to PHP's odbc_result_all function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $adorecordset as a HTML table. $tableheader_attributes allow you to control the table cellpadding, cellspacing and border attributes. Lastly you can replace the database column names with your own column titles with the array $col_titles. This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, not a production table recordset viewer.

You will need to include the file tohtml.inc.php.

Example of rs2html:

<?

include('tohtml.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb 

include('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb 

$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');   # create a connection 

$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db

$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; 

$rs   = $conn->Execute($sql); 

rs2html($rs,'border=2 cellpadding=3',array('Customer Name','Customer ID'));

?>

Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft ADO

  1. ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets cannot be created independently.
  2. ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.
  3. ADOdb's ADORecordSet->Move() uses absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.
  4. ADORecordSet->AbsolutePosition() cannot be used to move the record cursor.
  5. ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::Parameter( ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters and calling stored procedures.
  6. Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as in Example 8.

Database Driver Guide

This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you decide to create such a class.

First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we call it xbase.

Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.

The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC driver. Then we just need to create the class ADODB_xbase extends ADODB_odbc to support the new date and timestamp formats, the concatenation operator used, true and false. For the ADORecordSet_xbase extends ADORecordSet_odbc we need to change the MetaType function. See adodb-vfp.inc.php as an example.

More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, you do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override a few stub functions. See adodb-mysql.inc.php for example.

The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All dates should be converted to that format when passing to an ADOdb date function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the default date format in _pconnect _connect.

ADOConnection Functions to Override

Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional. There is no need to call the base class constructor.

_connect: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false. Should set the _connectionID.

_pconnect: Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false. Should set the _connectionID.

_query: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.

_close: Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets.

ErrorMsg: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg.

ADOConnection Fields to Set

_bindInputArray: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.

fmtDate

fmtTimeStamp

true

false

concat_operator

replaceQuote

hasLimit support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.

hasTop support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.

ADORecordSet Functions to Override

You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class that calls the parent class constructor.

FetchField: as documented above in ADORecordSet

_initrs: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _numOfRows and _numOfFields fields -- called by the constructor.

_seek: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some implementations such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.

_fetch: fetch a row using the database extension function and then move to the next row. Sets the fields array. If the parameter $ignore_fields is true then there is no need to populate the fields array, just move to the next row. then Returns true or false.

_close: close the recordset

Fields: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an associative one, you will have to override this. See adodb-odbc.inc.php for an example. For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is returned, there is no need to override this function.

ADOConnection Fields to Set

canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.

ToDo:

See the RoadMap article.

Also see the ADOdb proxy article for bridging Windows and Unix databases using http remote procedure calls. For your education, visit palslib.com for database info, and read this article on Optimizing PHP.

Change Log

3.40 ?? March 2003

Modified postgresql UpdateBlobFile() because it did not work in safe mode.

Now connection object is passed to raiseErrorFn as last parameter. Needed by StartTrans().

Added StartTrans() and CompleteTrans(). It is recommended that you do not modify transOff, but use the above functions.

oci8po now obeys ADODB_ASSOC_CASE settings.

Added virtualized error codes, using PEAR DB equivalents. Requires you to manually include adodb-error.inc.php yourself, with MetaError() and MetaErrorMsg($errno).

GetRowAssoc for mysql and pgsql were flawed. Fix by Ross Smith.

Added to datadict types I1, I2, I4 and I8. Changed datadict type 'T' to map to timestamp instead of datetime for postgresql.

Error handling in ExecuteSQLArray(), adodb-datadict.inc.php did not work.

We now auto-quote postgresql connection parameters when building connection string.

Added session expiry notification.

We now test with odbc mysql - made some changes to odbc recordset constructor.

MetaColumns now special cases access and other databases for odbc.

3.31 17 March 2003

Added row checking for _fetch in postgres.

Added Interval type to MetaType for postgres.

Remapped postgres driver to call postgres7 driver internally.

Adorecordset_array::getarray() did not return array when nRows >= 0.

Postgresql: at times, no error message returned by pg_result_error() but error message returned in pg_last_error(). Recoded again.

Interbase blob's now use chunking for updateblob.

Move() did not set EOF correctly. Reported by Jorma T.

We properly support mysql timestamp fields when we are creating mysql tables using the data-dict interface.

Table regex includes backticks character now.

3.30 3 March 2003

Added $ADODB_EXTENSION and $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH constant.

Made blank1stItem configurable using syntax "value:text" in GetMenu/GetMenu2. Thx to Gabriel Birke.

Previously ADOdb differed from the Microsoft standard because it did not define what to set $this->fields when EOF was reached. Now at EOF, ADOdb sets $this->fields to false for all databases, which is consist with Microsoft's implementation. Postgresql and mysql have always worked this way (in 3.11 and earlier). If you are experiencing compatibility problems (and you are not using postgresql nor mysql) on upgrading to 3.30, try setting the global variables $ADODB_COUNTRECS = true (which is the default) and $ADODB_FETCH_COMPAT = true (this is a new global variable).

We now check both pg_result_error and pg_last_error as sometimes pg_result_error does not display anything. Iman Mayes

We no longer check for magic quotes gpc in Quote().

Misc fixes for table creation in adodb-datadict.inc.php. Thx to iamsure.

Time calculations use adodb_time library for all negative timestamps due to problems in Red Hat 7.3 or later. Formerly, only did this for Windows.

In mssqlpo, we now check if $sql in _query is a string before we change || to +. This is to support prepared stmts.

Move() and MoveLast() internals changed to support to support EOF and $this->fields change.

Added ADODB_FETCH_BOTH support to mssql. Thx to Angel Fradejas afradejas#mediafusion.es

We now check if link resource exists before we run mysql_escape_string in qstr().

Before we flock in csv code, we check that it is not a http url.

3.20 17 Feb 2003

Added new Data Dictionary classes for creating tables and indexes. Warning - this is very much alpha quality code. The API can still change. See adodb/tests/test-datadict.php for more info.

We now ignore $ADODB_COUNTRECS for mysql, because PHP truncates incomplete recordsets when mysql_unbuffered_query() is called a second time.

Now postgresql works correctly when $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false.

Changed _adodb_getcount to properly support SELECT DISTINCT.

Discovered that $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true has some problems with prepared queries - suspect PHP bug.

Now GetOne and GetRow run in $ADODB_COUNTRECS=false mode for better performance.

Added support for mysql_real_escape_string() and pg_escape_string() in qstr().

Added an intermediate variable for mysql _fetch() and MoveNext() to store fields, to prevent overwriting field array with boolean when mysql_fetch_array() returns false.

Made arrays for getinsertsql and getupdatesql case-insensitive. Suggested by Tim Uckun" tim#diligence.com

3.11 11 Feb 2003

Added check for ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST constant in PConnect(). If defined, then PConnect() will actually call non-persistent Connect().

Modified interbase to properly work with Prepare().

Added $this->ibase_timefmt to allow you to change the date and time format.

Added support for $input_array parameter in CacheFlush().

Added experimental support for dbx, which was then removed when i found that it was slower than using native calls.

Added MetaPrimaryKeys for mssql and ibase/firebird.

Added new $trim parameter to GetCol and CacheGetCol

Uses updated adodb-time.inc.php 0.06.

3.10 27 Jan 2003

Added adodb_date(), adodb_getdate(), adodb_mktime() and adodb-time.inc.php.

For interbase, added code to handle unlimited number of bind parameters. From Daniel Hasan daniel#hasan.cl.

Added BlobDecode and UpdateBlob for informix. Thx to Fernando Ortiz.

Added constant ADODB_WINDOWS. If defined, means that running on Windows.

Added constant ADODB_PHPVER which stores php version as a hex num. Removed $ADODB_PHPVER variable.

Felho Bacsi reported a minor white-space regular expression problem in GetInsertSQL.

Modified ADO to use variant to store _affectedRows

Changed ibase to use base class Replace(). Modified base class Replace() to support ibase.

Changed odbc to auto-detect when 0 records returned is wrong due to bad odbc drivers.

Changed mssql to use datetimeconvert ini setting only when 4.30 or later (does not work in 4.23).

ExecuteCursor($stmt, $cursorname, $params) now accepts a new $params array of additional bind parameters -- William Lovaton walovaton#yahoo.com.mx.

Added support for sybase_unbuffered_query if ADODB_COUNTRECS == false. Thx to chuck may.

Fixed FetchNextObj() bug. Thx to Jorma Tuomainen.

We now use SCOPE_IDENTITY() instead of @@IDENTITY for mssql - thx to marchesini#eside.it

Changed postgresql movenext logic to prevent illegal row number from being passed to pg_fetch_array().

Postgresql initrs bug found by "Bogdan RIPA" bripa#interakt.ro $f1 accidentally named $f

3.00 6 Jan 2003

Fixed adodb-pear.inc.php syntax error.

Improved _adodb_getcount() to use SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ($sql) for languages that accept it.

Fixed _adodb_getcount() caching error.

Added sql to retrive table and column info for odbc_mssql.

2.91 3 Jan 2003

Revised PHP version checking to use $ADODB_PHPVER with legal values 0x4000, 0x4050, 0x4200, 0x4300.

Added support for bytea fields and oid blobs in postgres by allowing BlobDecode() to detect and convert non-oid fields. Also added BlobEncode to postgres when you want to encode oid blobs.

Added blobEncodeType property for connections to inform phpLens what encoding method to use for blobs.

Added BlobDecode() and BlobEncode() to base ADOConnection class.

Added umask() to _gencachename() when creating directories.

Added charPage for ado drivers, so you can set the code page.


$conn->charPage = CP_UTF8;

$conn->Connect($dsn);

Modified _seek in mysql to check for num rows=0.

Added to metatypes new informix types for IDS 9.30. Thx Fernando Ortiz.

_maxrecordcount returned in CachePageExecute $rsreturn

Fixed sybase cacheselectlimit( ) problems

MetaColumns() max_length should use precision for types X and C for ms access. Fixed.

Speedup of odbc non-SELECT sql statements.

Added support in MetaColumns for Wide Char types for ODBC. We halve max_length if unicode/wide char.

Added 'B' to types handled by GetUpdateSQL/GetInsertSQL.

Fixed warning message in oci8 driver with $persist variable when using PConnect.

2.90 11 Dec 2002

Mssql and mssqlpo and oci8po now support ADODB_ASSOC_CASE.

Now MetaType() can accept a field object as the first parameter.

New $arr = $db->ServerInfo( ) function. Returns $arr['description'] which is the string description, and $arr['version'].

PostgreSQL and MSSQL speedups for insert/updates.

Implemented new SetFetchMode() that removes the need to use $ADODB_FETCH_MODE. Each connection has independant fetchMode.

ADODB_ASSOC_CASE now defaults to 2, use native defaults. This is because we would break backward compat for too many applications otherwise.

Patched encrypted sessions to use replace()

The qstr function supports quoting of nulls when escape character is \

Rewrote bits and pieces of session code to check for time synch and improve reliability.

Added property ADOConnection::hasTransactions = true/false;

Added CreateSequence and DropSequence functions

Found misplaced MoveNext() in adodb-postgres.inc.php. Fixed.

Sybase SelectLimit not reliable because 'set rowcount' not cached - fixed.

Moved ADOConnection to adodb-connection.inc.php and ADORecordSet to adodb-recordset.inc.php. This allows us to use doxygen to generate documentation. Doxygen doesn't like the classes in the main adodb.inc.php file for some mysterious reason.

2.50, 14 Nov 2002

Added transOff and transCnt properties for disabling (transOff = true) and tracking transaction status (transCnt>0).

Added inputarray handling into _adodb_pageexecute_all_rows - "Ross Smith" RossSmith#bnw.com.

Fixed postgresql inconsistencies in date handling.

Added support for mssql_fetch_assoc.

Fixed $ADODB_FETCH_MODE bug in odbc MetaTables() and MetaPrimaryKeys().

Accidentally declared UnixDate() twice, making adodb incompatible with php 4.3.0. Fixed.

Fixed pager problems with some databases that returned -1 for _currentRow on MoveLast() by switching to MoveNext() in adodb-lib.inc.php.

Also fixed uninited $discard in adodb-lib.inc.php.

2.43, 25 Oct 2002

Added ADODB_ASSOC_CASE constant to better support ibase and odbc field names.

Added support for NConnect() for oracle OCINLogin.

Fixed NumCols() bug.

Changed session handler to use Replace() on write.

Fixed oci8 SelectLimit aggregate function bug again.

Rewrote pivoting code.

2.42, 4 Oct 2002

Fixed ibase_fetch() problem with nulls. Also interbase now does automatic blob decoding, and is backward compatible. Suggested by Heinz Hombergs heinz#hhombergs.de.

Fixed postgresql MoveNext() problems when called repeatedly after EOF. Also suggested by Heinz Hombergs.

PageExecute() does not rewrite queries if SELECT DISTINCT is used. Requested by hans#velum.net

Added additional fixes to oci8 SelectLimit handling with aggregate functions - thx to Christian Bugge for reporting the problem.

2.41, 2 Oct 2002

Fixed ADODB_COUNTRECS bug in odbc. Thx to Joshua Zoshi jzoshi#hotmail.com.

Increased buffers for adodb-csvlib.inc.php for extremely long sql from 8192 to 32000.

Revised pivottable.inc.php code. Added better support for aggregate fields.

Fixed mysql text/blob types problem in MetaTypes base class - thx to horacio degiorgi.

Added SQLDate($fmt,$date) function, which allows an sql date format string to be generated - useful for group by's.

Fixed bug in oci8 SelectLimit when offset>100.

2.40 4 Sept 2002

Added new NLS_DATE_FORMAT property to oci8. Suggested by Laurent NAVARRO ln#altidev.com

Now use bind parameters in oci8 selectlimit for better performance.

Fixed interbase replaceQuote for dialect != 1. Thx to "BEGUIN Pierre-Henri - INFOCOB" phb#infocob.com.

Added white-space check to QA.

Changed unixtimestamp to support fractional seconds (we always round down/floor the seconds). Thanks to beezly#beezly.org.uk.

Now you can set the trigger_error type your own user-defined type in adodb-errorhandler.inc.php. Suggested by Claudio Bustos clbustos#entelchile.net.

Added recordset filters with rsfilter.inc.php.

$conn->_rs2rs does not create a new recordset when it detects it is of type array. Some trickery there as there seems to be a bug in Zend Engine

Added render_pagelinks to adodb-pager.inc.php. Code by "Pablo Costa" pablo#cbsp.com.br.

MetaType() speedup in adodb.inc.php by using hashing instead of switch. Best performance if constant arrays are supported, as they are in PHP5.

adodb-session.php now updates only the expiry date if the crc32 check indicates that the data has not been modified.


0.10 Sept 9 2000 First release

Old changelog history moved to old-changelog.htm.